is the most populated city in the Iranian Azerbaijan,one of the historical capitals of Iran, and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Located in the Quru River valley between the long ridge of the volcanic cones of the Sahand and Eynali mountains,
The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, the city is considered a summer resort.
Tabriz has a population of 1,549,453. The population consists mostly of Iranian Azerbaijanis who speak the Azerbaijani language. It is a major heavy industry hub for automobile, machine tools, refineries and petrochemical, textile, and cement production industries. The city is famous for its handicrafts including hand-woven rugs and jewelry. It is known for locally made confectioneries, chocolates, dried nuts, and traditional food. Tabriz is also an academic hub and a site for some of the most prestigious academic and cultural institutes in the northwest of Iran.
The city has a long and turbulent history with its oldest civilization sites dated back to 1,500 BC. It contains many historical monuments representing the transition of Iranian architecture in its long historical timelines. Most of the preserved historical sites in the city belong to Ilkhanid (of Mongol Empire), Safavid, and Qajar area, among them is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz which is inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2010. From the early modern era, the city was pivotal in the development, movement,